Photosystem II is encoded by genes on the DNA that is inside the chloroplast. It synthesizes on special chloroplast-specific ribosomes as well. All green colored plants will contain chloroplast to a certain degree, therefore, photosystem II can be found throughout all cells in a non-woody plant and in the leaves of all plants. Photosystem II will end up in the thylakoid membrane between the thylakoid lumen and the stroma of the chloroplast.

Bact 1

EM cross section of a cyanobacteria.

PS II can also be found in cyanobacteria. These organisms have two membranes, a outter and and inner membrane. The inner membrane is contiuous with the outer mambrane and this is where the PS II proteins are embeded. Because of chloroplast resemblance to cyanobacteria is has been proposed that at one point a early eukaryotic cell engulffed on e of these eary cyano bacteria and eventually became the modern day chloroplast.


  1. Rogelio: Photosystem II: Introduction
  2. Rogelio: Photosystem II: Biological function
  3. Rogelio: Photosystem II: Biosynthesis
  4. Rogelio: Photosystem II: Gene sequence
  5. Rogelio: Photosystem II: Amino acid sequence and composition
  6. Rogelio: Photosystem II: Secondary and tertiary structure
  7. Rogelio: Photosystem II: Domains and structural motifs
  8. Rogelio: Photosystem II: Interactions with macromolecules and small molecules
  9. Rogelio: Photosystem II: Molecular biodiversity and evolution
  10. Rogelio: Photosystem II: Literature overview
  11. Rogelio: Photosystem II: Useful online resources

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